Let yourself be guided with Arcadia

A comprehensive methodological and tool-supported
model-based engineering guidance

Arcadia is a tooled method devoted to systems & architecture engineering, supported by Capella modelling tool.

It describes the detailed reasoning to

It can be applied to complex systems, equipment, software or hardware architecture definition, especially those dealing with strong constraints to be reconciled (cost, performance, safety, security, reuse, consumption, weight…).

It is intended to be used by most stakeholders in system/product/software or hardware definition and IVVQ as their common engineering reference and collaboration support.

Arcadia stands for ARChitecture Analysis and Design Integrated Approach.

How can Arcadia contribute to engineering stakeholders tasks?

Reference Documents

Online documents by the author of the method

A series of online documents to dive into the principles and concepts of Arcadia:

  • An introduction to Engineering as supported by Arcadia.
  • A first level description of Arcadia approach and main engineering Tasks.
  • An in-depth description of Arcadia tasks and activities.
  • The data created and exploited by these activities.
  • The main processes supporting engineering.
  • A formal description of Arcadia language concepts.
  • Real life questions and answers on deploying Arcadia.

Discover these documents

Reference Book

Model-based System and Architecture Engineering with the Arcadia Method

Arcadia is a system engineering method based on the use of models, with a focus on the collaborative definition, evaluation and exploitation of its architecture.

This book describes the fundamentals of the method and its contribution to engineering issues such as requirements management, product line, system supervision, and integration, verification and validation (IVV). It provides a reference for the modeling language defined by Arcadia.

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Model-based System and Architecture Engineering with the Arcadia Method
Arcadia Leadership Team

Arcadia Leadership Team

Jean-Luc Voirin, leader of the creation of the Arcadia method, along with some of the leaders on developing and deploying MBSE Arcadia & Capella practices in Thales. From right to left: Pierre Nowodzienski, Jean-Luc Voirin, Juan Navas, Stephane Bonnet, Frederic Maraux, Gerald Garcia, Philippe Fournies, Eric Lepicier.

Modern systems are subject to increasingly higher constraints regarding expected behavior and services, safety, security, performance, environment, human factors, etc. All these constraints are under the responsibility of different stakeholders, which need to be reconciled during the solution architectural design and development process.

Architecture as prime engineering driver

Architecture definition is a major part of engineering activities, and notably includes analyzing operational needs, structuring and decomposing the system, software, or hardware assets in order to

  • Provide significant information for decision-makers and managers
  • Ease the mastering of need, complexity, design and development
  • Structure engineering in a well-defined, justified, technical frame
  • Guide designers and developers to respect the product definition drivers.

Architecture benefits

Arcadia, a model-based engineering method

Arcadia is a model-based engineering method for systems, hardware and software architectural design. It has been developed by Thales between 2005 and 2010 through an iterative process involving operational architects from all the Thales business domains. Since 2018, Arcadia is registered as Z67-140 standard by AFNOR, the French national organization for standardization.

Arcadia promotes a viewpoint-driven approach (as described in ISO/IEC 42010) and emphasizes a clear distinction between need and solution.


Perspectives and activities of the method have been defined in order to comply with a few Golden Rules:

  • Besides requirement engineering, drive an operational and functional/nonfunctional need analysis, describing final user expectations, usage conditions, and realistic integration, verification and validation conditions
  • Consider engineering through three mandatory interrelated activities, at the same level of importance:
    • Need analysis and modelling
    • Architecture building and validation
    • Requirements engineering
  • Check requirements against an architectural design model (early architecture) for robustness and feasibility
  • Structure the system/hardware/software and build a logical architecture, by searching for the best compromise between design drivers, (non-functional) constraints and viewpoints. Each viewpoint deals with a specific concern such as functional consistency, interfaces, performances, real time, safety, security, integration, reuse, cost, risk, schedule, and the ease of adaptation (e.g. to changing requirements)
  • Secure development and IVVQ through a physical architecture which deals with technical and development issues, favoring separation of concerns, efficient and safe component interaction (e.g. layered architecture, generic behavior and interaction patterns, component model, etc.)


Noticeable features of Arcadia

  • Models supporting enterprise-wide collaboration and co-engineering
    • An Eclipse Capella™ model is built for each Arcadia engineering phase. All of these models are articulated through model transformation, and related by justification links; they are processed as a whole for impact analysis, notably in case of required evolutions.
    • Collaboration with engineering specialties is supported by modelled engineering viewpoints to formalize constraints and to evaluate architecture adequacy with each of them
    • Collaboration with customer and subsystems engineering relies on co-engineered models (e.g. physical architecture), automatic initialization of need model for sub-systems, and impact analysis means between requirements and models of different engineering levels.
    • Integration, verification, validation and qualification (IVVQ) are driven by user capabilities, functional chains and scenarios in the model, rather than by textual requirements
    • Elaboration of product line variabilities and configurations is optimized and assisted based on operational market segmentation, commercial portfolio contents and architecture constraints/adaptations to product policy, all described in the model.
  • Tailored for architectural design
    • A domain-specific language (DSL) was preferred in order to ease appropriation by all stakeholders, usually not familiar with general-purpose, generic languages such as UML or SysML.
  • Dealing with complexity and size
    • Abstraction levels are in the DNA of Arcadia. Capella advanced mechanisms have been developed to mask and confine complexity, deal with model maintenance, large-scale modelling, model evolution and reuse.
  • Field-proven in real industrial situations
    • Arcadia is currently applied in various domains and organizations, in many countries, on very large or small projects, by thousands of users. A continuous challenging, improvement and adaptation of both the method and its supporting workbench has favored a very fast dissemination.
  • Open to domain-specific added value
  • Adapted to several lifecycles and work sharing schemes

Next paragraphs give a first description of major arcadia perspectives, for a given engineering level (system, sub-system, software or hardware part…).

Definition of the Problem - Customer Operational Need Analysis

The first perspective focuses on analyzing the customer needs and goals, expected missions and activities, far beyond system requirements. This analysis aims at ensuring adequate system definition with regard to its real operational use and IVVQ conditions.

Outputs of this engineering phase mainly consist of an “operational architecture” which describes and structures the need in terms of actors/users, their operational capabilities and activities (including operational use scenarios with dimensioning parameters, and operational constraints such as safety, security, lifecycle, etc.).

Watch the video below, illustrating this architecture level with a commented example: the level-crossing traffic control.

Arcadia - Customer Operational Need Analysis

Formalization of system requirements - System Need Analysis

The second perspective focuses on the system itself, in order to define how it can satisfy the former operational need, along with its expected behavior and qualities. The following elements are created during this step: Functions (or services) to be supported and related exchanges, non-functional constraints (safety, security, etc.); performance allocated to system boundary; role sharing and interactions between system and operators; scenarios of usage, etc.

The main goal at this stage is to check the feasibility of customer requirements (cost, schedule, technology readiness, etc.) and if necessary, to provide means to renegotiate their content. The functional need analysis can be completed by an initial system architectural design model in order to examine requirements against this architecture and evaluate their cost and consistency.

Outputs of this engineering phase mainly consist of system functional need descriptions (functions, functional chains, scenarios), interoperability and interaction with the users and external systems (functions, exchanges plus non-functional constraints), and system requirements.

Note that these two phases, which constitute the first part of architecture building, "specify" the subsequent design, and therefore should be approved/validated with the Customer.

Watch the video below, illustrating this architecture level with a commented example: the level-crossing traffic control.

Arcadia - Formalization of system requirements - System Need Analysis

Definition of solution architecture - Logical Architecture (Notional Solution)

This third perspective aims at building a coarse-grained component breakdown of the system carrying most important engineering decisions, and which is unlikely to be challenged later in the development process. Starting from previous functional and non-functional need analysis, a first definition of the solution expected behavior is performed (using functions, interfaces, data flows, behaviors…). In order to embed these functions, one or several decompositions of the system into logical components are to be built, each function being allocated to one component. These logical components will later tend to be the basic decomposition for development/sub-contracting, integration, reuse, product and configuration management item definitions (but other criteria will be taken into account to define the boundaries for these items)


The building process has to take into account architectural drivers and priorities, viewpoints and associated design rules, etc. For the component breakdown to be stable in further engineering phases, all major (non-functional) constraints (safety, security, performance, IVV, cost, non-technical, Etc.) are taken into account and compared to each other so as to find the best trade-off. This method is described as "viewpoint-driven", where viewpoints formalize the way these constraints impact the system architecture.

Outputs of this engineering phase consist of the selected logical architecture which is described by a functional description, components and justified interfaces definition, scenarios, modes and states, along with the formalization of all viewpoints and the way they are taken into account in the components design.

Since the architecture has to be validated against the need analysis, links with requirements and operational scenarios are also to be produced.


Watch the video below, illustrating this architecture level with a commented example: the level-crossing traffic control.

Arcadia - Definition of solution architecture - Logical Architecture (Notional Solution)

Definition of solution architecture - Physical Architecture

The fourth perspective has the same intent as the logical architecture building, except that it defines the “final” architecture of the system at this level of engineering. Once this is done the model is considered ready to develop (by "lower" engineering levels). Therefore, it introduces further details and design decisions, rationalization, architectural patterns, new technical services and behavioral components, and makes the logical architecture vision evolve according to implementation, technical and technological constraints and choices. It notably introduces resource components that will embed former behavioral components. The same viewpoint-driven approach as for logical architecture building is used.

Outputs of this engineering phase consist of the selected physical architecture which includes components to be produced, formalization of all viewpoints and the way they are taken into account in the components design. Links with requirements and operational scenarios are also produced.

Watch the video below, illustrating this architecture level with a commented example: the level-crossing traffic control.

Arcadia - Definition of solution architecture - Physical Architecture

Building Strategy - Contracts for Development and IVVQ

The fifth and last perspective is a contribution to an EPBS (End-Product Breakdown Structure), and models describing specification of each sub-system, hardware or software component; it takes benefits from the former architectural work, to formalize the component requirements definition and prepare a secured IVVQ.

All previous hypotheses and imposed constraints associated to the system architecture and components are summarized and checked here.

Outputs from this engineering phase are mainly new models describing component integration contracts, collecting all necessary expected properties for each component to be developed.

Co-Engineering, Sub-Contracting and Multi-Level Engineering

The physical architecture is the preferred place for co-engineering between systems, software, and hardware stakeholders.


Arcadia can be applied in a recursive way at each level of system breakdown, so that a subsystem of the current system of interest becomes the system at the next level of interest, until single discipline subsystems or procurement items or COTS are identified.

The physical architecture at a given level of interest defines the components to be developed at the level above, according to the corresponding component integration contract. Level "n" need analysis is restricted to each component scope and neighborhood, in order to define its IVVQ context while preserving Intellectual Property constraints.


Adaptation of Arcadia to Dedicated Domains, Contexts, Etc.

Beyond the transverse, common architectural design work, each organization, in the field of its own business, constraints and know-how, should tailor the method steps by adapting them to their own domains, products and programs. This includes:

  • Definition of a reference architecture (including architecture drivers) for each key product and software element
  • Definition of appropriate viewpoints adapted to the domain, product and architecture
  • Definition of complementary dedicated engineering rules
  • Selection of relevant architectural patterns for the domain, product, and technologies considered
  • Setting up of models, based on the reference architecture and viewpoints, and basis for simulation, early validation, automation of the design process (key for productivity gains)
  • Definition of adjustment rules for each of its contexts
  • Dissemination in the engineering teams (training, coaching)...

Adaptation to different Lifecycles

The recommended method described in this document takes best benefit from a top-down approach:

  • Starting from operational and system need to define and validate requirements
  • Building a "technology neutral" logical architecture dealing with non-functional constraints
  • Then specifying technical functions and services of a physical architecture to implement it in the best way

Yet many constraints which need to be taken into account arise from the industrial context:

  • Technical or technological limits
  • Available technology, COTS
  • Existing legacy to be reused
  • Product policy imposing the use of given hardware boards, software components...
  • Industrial constraints such as available skills, the necessity to sub-contract, and export control...

This is the reason why Arcadia can be applied according to several lifecycles and work sharing schemes. Great care has been taken in the method, the language and the Capella workbench to not impose one single engineering path (e.g. top-down) but to be adaptable to many lifecycles: Incremental, iterative, top-down, bottom-up, middle-out, Etc.. The method is inherently iterative.

Examples of iterations or non-linear courses are:

  • Need analysis starting from requirements, due to a lack of operational knowledge (a kind of reverse engineering of operational need)
  • Requirements analysis anticipating logical or even physical architecture, to check for feasibility by defining/confronting to an early architecture
  • Logical architecture anticipating (part of) physical architecture, e.g. to check for performance issues
  • Physical architecture adapting to subcontracting constraints, or built from assembling reusable, existing components
  • Components contract definition iterating on physical architecture to secure integration and refine contract parameters

Arcadia matrix activities

MBSE with Arcadia method step-by-step


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